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Buy an essay: Literature Review

The literature review is seen as a major stage of any research, since it is absolutely indispensable to consider the contemporary state of selected scientific field, what has already been done by other authors, what is still unclear in this issue, and therefore, what requires further study. The current literature review touches upon the modern debates in the field of globalization processes and their influence on different spheres of economics.
The data for this Literature review was collected from various sources: electronic databases (Emerald Library, Articles in Hospitality & Tourism, Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Trends-WHATT, Google Library), journals (Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, International Journal of Hospitality Management), books, reports and websites (see bibliography).
The literature review consists of three parts. It starts with discussing the definition of globalization and general understanding of globalization through the prism of different theories. Another chapter of the literature review will discuss the difficulties created by globalization and the consequences of this process for economics, followed by the theories of how the hotel management industry is affected by globalization.
Globalization and Globalization Theories
In a broad sense, globalization is defined as a process of global economic, political and cultural integration and unification. The main consequence of this is the global division of labor; planet-scale migration of capital, human and industrial resources; standardization of legislation, economic and technological processes, as well as convergence and fusion of cultures in different countries (Gupta, 2008; Friedman, 2007). It is an objective process that bears systemic character, i.e. covers all the aspects of society (Ritzer, 2009).
There are different points of view concerning the essence of globalization. Some studies focus on its economic aspects (Gupta, 2008), others – on the formation of common information space (Friedman, 2007), and the third – on the development of common cultural and political standards (Palmer, 2009).
Palmer (2009) claims that the world economy as a global system is a historical, evolving and dynamic category. Its evolution, the transition from one phase of development to another, highlights the theoretical concepts that explain these changes. Historically, the world economy was seen as a system of national economies, or certain groups of them. Therefore the analysis of many concepts is taking into account the position of national economies inside the global system. The general premise of these theories is that the national economies in the modern world occupy unequal positions.
When trying to understand the causes of globalization, three theoretical approaches have been developed: imperialism, dependency theory and the theory of the world system (Ritzer, 2009). These three theoretical approaches to globalization can be considered classic, but there’s also a number of other popular theories, such as: modernization theory, neo-imperialism, neo-evolutionism, the theory of stages of growth, the concept of interdependence of national economies, the concept of equal partnership, etc. Each of these theories mainly concerns the economic sphere and aims to reveal the mechanisms of exploitation and injustice, e.g., in the way it is stated by Gupta (2008).
The task of researchers in the context of the theories of globalization is to identify existing types of local communities, describe their boundaries and present the parameters of their social ties with other communities. The practical significance of globalization theories lies in exploring opportunities for forming an integrated system of values, identities and practices within the global social space; in creating strategies for effective inclusion of local communities in the system of international cooperation; in finding and organizing effective mechanisms for the participation of external factors in solving local problems and enhancement of the role of local factors in functioning of international regimes in the area of security, economy, environment and culture.

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