The main task of the head of any organization is to organize the process of work and to make employees to work, motivate them to good work to achieve the set goals. It is clear that the main motivating factor is good payment, but there are many other factors that can motivate a person to work well.
Motivation is a way to encourage yourself and others to purposeful action to achieve the goal. It is a certain external factor affecting the person and his inner state, which increases a person’s desire to work. At the core of motivation lie two categories – the motive and incentives. Motive – is the internal motive power, desire, inclination, orientation, internal setting; and incentive is a material, moral or other types of encourage (reward). Thus, the essence of motivation (incentive) is the choice of the optimal incentive for the employee, which comply with his motives of behavior. Therefore, the basis of motivation is to identify the motives of the employee.
The task of the paper is to analyze and synthesize the Herzberg’s Motivation Theory by describing an example of an academic department head at a university to motivate an entry-level teacher , using Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory.
Modern theories of motivation are based on the results of psychological and sociological research and are aimed at definition and development of methods of motivation for employees of different professions and different organizations. There are many theories and systems of motivation, and it should be noted that they all have advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, each of the theories can be effectively implemented in certain circumstances. One of them is a motivation theory of Herzberg.
The two-factor theory of motivation was created in the late1950’s by Frederick Herzberg. According to this theory, each work includes different factors that cause job satisfaction, and also factors that cause dissatisfaction from work. That is Herzberg divided all the factors which influence employee’s desire to work into two groups: facilitating and impeding the satisfaction from work. The first group are factors which increase the positive motivation of work behavior:
1. Labor successes.
3. Actually the process of labor.
4. Degree of responsibility.
5. Career development.
6. Professional growth.
The second group include such factors as:
1. Job security.
2. Social status.
3. Dissatisfaction with Labor policies of the company.
4. Working conditions.
5. The ratio of supervisor.
6. Personal inclinations.
7. Interpersonal relationships.
According to the theory of Herzberg, the normal level of these factors increases the positive motivation of work behavior, but dissatisfaction with any of these factors weakens motivation. This theory can be explained in that way: to motivate employees to work, the head must, above all, remove the dissatisfaction factors from the second group of factors, and then use positive motivation to encourage employees through the effect of factors from the first group. That is, motivation is connected with the very nature and essence of the work. The absence or lack of motivation does not lead to job dissatisfaction, but its presence motivates employees to improve work performance.
If the academic department head of the university wants to encourage new teacher to work, then according to the theory of F. Herzberg he needs to make a list of hygiene factors, and especially motivating factors, and give the employee the opportunity to choose what he prefers. The level of motivation of the new teacher can influence: success in the performance of work, promotion, recognition of results of his work, the possibility of creative growth, high responsibility. Of all these options, the most suitable are the possibility of creative development and high level of responsibility. For example, the head can offer a new teacher such opportunities:
1) to lead a discussion group with students on topics and issues that are interesting to him and to the students. This opportunity will help the teacher to show his knowledge and skills, to get to know the students better.
2) to make a presentation speech at a scientific conference, to show his knowledge and creativity, to express his views and ideas. The possibility to show the creative potential is very important for any teacher, as well as the opportunity to express his ideas.
3) to propose a teacher to be a responsible leader of research project, because the high level of responsibility and involvement in the work will motivate him.
Thus, all the discussed variants of motivation, according to Herzberg’s theory, will help to motivate the new teacher to a better work, help him to be interested in the work, and to get satisfaction from it. These factors, together with the satisfaction of basic hygiene factors, ensure the motivation to excellent work of the teacher.
In this paper we have considered the concept of employees motivation according to the theory of Herzberg. According to this theory, the motivation of employees is affected by hygiene factors, which cause satisfaction or dissatisfaction from work, but in order to achieve motivation, it is necessary to ensure the availability of motivating factor to employees. Based on the theory of motivation of Herzberg, to motivate employees the head must learn their desires and aspirations in the work , and then to make a list of hygiene factors, and to provide motivating factors .