The United States Department of Justice is one of the departments of the U.S. federal government, which was established to provide law enforcement and justice systems, and is headed by U.S. Attorney General. It has a budget of approximately $25 billion, and is comprised of about 40 component organizations, that is why the U.S. Department of Justice is the world’s largest law office and the central agency for the enforcement of federal laws. (The United states Department of Justice)
U.S. Attorney General, who heads the US Department of Justice as subordinate unit of power and the federal prosecutor’s office, have such functions which in other countries are assigned to the prosecution office, the Interior Ministry, the bodies of counterintelligence and criminal investigation, the prison authorities. The sphere of control of federal prosecutors in the U.S. is wider than usual spheres of authority of the prosecutor’s office (criminal prosecution and public prosecution), and does not coincide with the traditional European Ministries of Justice spheres of authority.
General Attorney directs the U.S. Attorneys and manages them, and the overall direction of the Attorney General is provided by the President of the United States, who by virtue of Article II of the Constitution of the United States has an obligation to “ensure accurate execution of the laws.” The President also appoints the Attorney General “with the advice and consent” of the Senate.
The main duties of the Attorney General are implemented through a properly organized units of the Ministry of Justice and U.S. Attorneys. An important duty of the Attorney General is giving the President advice about candidates for federal judges, including members of the U.S. Supreme Court. The function of the Attorney General to represent U.S. interests in the courts is delegated to the Solicitor General, one of the top officials of the Ministry of Justice.
The leadership offices of the Department of Justice are: Office of the Attorney General, Office of the Deputy Attorney General, Office of the Associate Attorney General and Office of the Solicitor General. The Solicitor General represents the United States Supreme Court in all categories of cases affecting the interests of the American state as a whole. The function of the Attorney General to enforce federal laws is delegated to various units of the Ministry of Justice (offices, bureaus, services), and general management is entrusted to First Deputy Attorney General. Associate of Attorney General manages only those units that operate mainly in the sphere of civil law.
Main functions of the U.S. Department of Justice are:
1. Advisory functions:
– to advise the President and other officers and executive authorities, as well as the U.S. Congress;
– Preparation of bills, drafts of the President and other regulations;
2. Near-judicial work:
– Investigation of crimes and other offenses (criminal prosecution);
– Selection of candidates for judges of the Supreme Court and other courts; (of courts of the first instance – Federal district courts (84), and courts of the second instance – Courts of appeal (12));
– Preparation of civil and criminal cases to conduct them in federal, foreign, international courts and state courts;
– Support of prosecution;
– Implementation of operational search activities;
– to conduct civil cases in courts;
– Provide security for judges and other court personnel;
– Ensure the safety of witnesses and other participants of the trial;
– Execution of court decisions on criminal and civil cases, and management of correctional institutions.
Department of Justice has the following divisions: Antitrust Division, Civil Division, Civil Rights Division, Criminal Division, Environment and Natural Resources Division (ENRD), Justice Management Division (JMD), National Security Division (NSD), Tax Division. (The United states Department of Justice)
The important divisions of the Department are Law enforcement agencies: United States Marshals Service (USMS), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP), National Institute of Corrections, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and Office of the Inspector General (OIG). (The United states Department of Justice)
The importance of U.S. Department of Justice can not be overestimated – it is a single advisory and law enforcement authority, which provides legal assistance to the President, the courts, Congress and other government bodies. In addition to the important functions which the Department carries out in the country, the U.S. Justice Department also promotes the process of improving the effectiveness of international cooperation between law enforcement agencies. Cooperation is carried out through educational activities according to the Treaty on mutual legal assistance, through exchange programs. As required, the U.S. Justice Department often serves as a central connecting body with foreign prosecutors, the principal law enforcement agencies. Taking into account the increasing level of transnational crime problems, such assistance is becoming an important area of international activity of U.S. Department of Justice.
“The office of Department of Justice”. The United states Department of Justice. www.justice.gov. Web. 11 Feb 2011
Clayton Cornell W. “United States Department Of Justice”. Law Library – American Law and Legal Information. Web. 11 Feb 2011
Easby-Smith James S. The Department of Justice: Its History and Functions. Cornell University Library, 2009
Elmes W. “The executive departments of the United States at Washington”. Cornell University Library, 2009