Custom essays on U.S. political system

The characteristic feature of the U.S. political system is a clear separation of political power between the legislative, executive and judicial powers, in a presidential form of government. Executive power in the country belongs to the U.S. President, and the Executive Branch of the government. The executive branch provides law enforcement and coordinates the defense. Departments’ roles and functions are defined by the Constitution as “advisory bodies to the President”. According to the Constitution of the USA, the President may require from the heads of each executive department a written opinion on any matter within its competence (Art. II, Sec. 2). But the specifics of the U.S. government is that each ministry operates independently, as their spheres of responsibility are very different.
In the USA the units of the executive branch of the federal government are represented by 14 departments (except military): State, Defense, Justice, Interior, Finance, Trade, Energy, Transport, Agriculture, Housing and Urban Development, Labor, Education, Health and Human Services, Veterans Affairs.
Departments of State and Defense perform military and foreign policy, therefore they are excluded from the administrative agencies, and the remaining 12 departments are classified as administrative offices. Individual structural units of these departments may also be administrative offices, if they have the authority to determine the legal status of individuals through the issuance of regulations and orders. These powers they get are usually from the head of the department.
It is also necessary to pay attention to the fact that, until 1913 the U.S. government consisted only of five ministries, and created in 1965 ministries became necessary for the implementation of active state role in social sphere and management of economic sector, which are of national importance. (Elmes, 2009)
The internal structure of ministries (Departments) is not the same, due to their historical and functional differences, however, it has a number of common elements and management entities. The work of the Ministry is headed by Deputy Minister, who governs all other officials and offices of the agency. Heads of functional Departments are usually in the position of Assistant to Minister and are in his direct subordination. Powers and functions of the ministries are strictly defined by the law, and under tight control of the Congress and Office of the President.
Each ministry has the legal department and the department of inspection, most of them have departments responsible for legislation and relations with Congress, public relations and media, human resources and labor relations. It is important to point the fact that the structure of the Ministry is not unchangeable, since each minister has the right to make changes.

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