Saul Bellow

The problem of total loneliness Western intellectuals – the main theme of creativity Nobel Prize in 1978, the writer Saul Bellow (born 1914). He wrote novels belong to “The Adventures of Augie March (1953),” Man, dangling in the air “(1973) (” Between Heaven and Earth “),” Mr Zammlera Planet “(1973),” Humboldt’s Gift “( 1976).The protagonist of the novel “Herzog” (1964) – a university professor of philosophy at Duke Moses – is experiencing an intellectual and personal crisis.
Not feeling the solid ground under their feet, Moses is seeking contacts with the world. One of the strangest forms of communication are letters to various destinations – living and dead: Kierkegaard, D. Eisenhower, Spinoza, Nietzsche, Tolstoy, relatives, beloved, God. Letters, however, could not be sent.
Women surrounding Moses, also can not give him the spiritual satisfaction. The former wife of Moses, Madeleine, as gloves, changing their intellectual passions: Solovyov, de Maistre, Eleanor of Aquitaine – but beats reading detective novels. Mistress Moses Region – the embodiment of sensuality. The hero rushes in space, from city to city, but the redemption or solace is not happening.
The world of books and other people’s judgments, in which he lives Herzog, explodes, coming into contact with reality. The desire to bring ideas and knowledge in line with the world ends for the hero’s failure. In the final novel, Moses remains alone in an abandoned house, and finally stops scribbling letters and immersed in the intellectual silence. But this silence can not replace his real life.
Moses at Bellow – a martyr and a knight of modern spirit. As a result of his spiritual pilgrimage, he comes to renounce rationalist design. Duke rises and begins to enjoy life: to feel the warmth of the sun, to distinguish colors, love. Denial of false claims, no arrogant claims to everyday life – as the finale comes to Duke.
In a sense, “Duke” can be regarded as a “Bildungsroman”. But in this reading sees a certain irony, since the teacher is brought up. Validity professor teaches a lesson – the hard, painful, something destructive. Moral here is the idea Bellow that the modern mind, generally requires constant shaking. The novel ends on an ironic tone, which allows not to identify the hero and the author, depicting the tragedy of the American intelligentsia.
In the 70′s. going deeper philosophical foundations of Bellow’s prose. The novel “Humboldt’s Gift”, he is drawn to the genre of parable. The writer makes a kind of literary experiment, as if splitting his personality between the two heroes, writers, poets – Charlie citrine and Von Humboldt Fleisher. Citrine following in the footsteps of his mentor Humboldt and partly surpassed him.
Having written the first book, Charlie gained fame has eclipsed the teacher, and Citrine in Humboldt reproached that he had allegedly stolen his identity and built from individual Citrine his hero. The success of Citrine came with the production of a Broadway play written by an international adventurer XVIII century. Which is a collective image of Casanova and the Marquis de Sade. Reputed liberal, Citrine confirmed its reputation as one of the prominent American intellectuals.
The hero stands as a careful and thoughtful observer of manners of his time. But his “serious conversations” that constitute the main activity Citrine, has long been laid between it and real life deaf cordon. Kaleidoscopic his maxims obscures the hero’s main problem – lack of emotional and spiritual equilibrium. By the beginning of the narrative Citrine is a creative impasse, from which sees no way out.
The problem of the collapse of the illusions of the artist is placed on the basis not only of the image Citrine. The motif of “Humboldt’s gift” becomes a rallying in the fate of both characters. Posthumous portion of his teacher Humboldt – oblivion. Humboldt dies in obscurity, because America does not need art.
Death of Humboldt reflects surrender intellectuals to society. The fate of “gift” of Humboldt executed heap of irony. In the hour of crisis Citrine gets the inheritance from his deceased friend in the form of two screenplays. They miraculously bring Charlie’s money, location, friends, faith in themselves. Becoming a businessman, a hero of Bellow’s undergoing a complete transformation. There is a “drop Charlie Citrine, the author exposes the position of hero, for failing to resist vulgarity, strongly condemned.
Reconciliation of the hero with the world is in a later work Bellow – the novel “Jan Dean” (1982). Hero Sordi intercedes on behalf of the black student who was wrongly accused of murdering two white guys. The process is lost. Sordi forced to leave. But he did not feel calm or the West or in Eastern Europe. In the final novel, the hero with his wife for the hills, toward the sun. Such a move demonstrates the moral recovery of the hero and means unconditional acceptance of the world, reality, rejection of the rebellion, resistance.

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