Transcriptomics has led to the identification of numerous markers for human diseases
Nowadays, there are being conducted many researches with the certain perspectives in the sphere of medicine. There are many innovations and discoveries that can change the whole concept of the perception of the medicine and offer the possibilities of the higher level. For example, transcriptomics. Transcriptome – is the totality of all transcripts, synthesized by a single cell or group of cells, including mRNAs and non coding RNAs. The concept of transcript may denote a complete set of transcripts in a given organism or a specific set of transcripts (RNA), presented in a certain type of cells. Unlike the genome, which is generally the same for all cells of one line, transcriptome can vary depending on
environmental conditions. Given that the concept of transcriptome includes transcripts of all of the cells, it also reflects the gene expression profile at a given time. The most common method for studying the transcriptome – is the use of biochips (DNA microarray), as described in The global study of gene expression at the RNA level.
From the characterization of the human genome there have been created new avenues of research of the global analysis of genetic material. It is clear that not all the genomeis are transcribed and ultimately translated protein, which has led to controversial concepts such as junk DNA, which in reality is characterized only by the scientific ignorance of many of its functions. Thus, one challenge is to consider what portion of the genome is transcribed into messenger RNA that is, what genetic material is expressed in a cell type under given conditions, as stated in Transcriptomics Facility. Thus, the concept of transcriptome
appears to represent all the mRNA transcribed under some circumstances, overall.
Notably, while speaking of the human genome, this epithet does not make sense for the human transcriptome, as there are plenty of transcriptomes depending on tissue type and environmental conditions even for the same species. Although, it cannot be said and proved that transcriptomics has led to the identification of numerous markers for human diseases
Transcriptomics are to quantify the expression level of genes, using techniques to analyze thousands of molecules of mRNA at the same time, using a technique based on microarrays, as stated in Transcriptomics. The transcriptome, analogous to genome, proteome and metabolome is the set of all transcripts (messenger RNA or mRNA) of an organism or cell type, as described in RNA-Seq: a revolutionary tool for transcriptomics. From this concept comes transcriptomics, one of the branches that have evolved after the first sequencing of entire genomes, when they realized the
limit imposed by the analysis of gene expression typically used up to that point
(single gene analysis, such as northern blotting RT and PCR) can quantify in relative terms (for example, using as reference the expression of a gene that keeps a constant expression, called housekeeping) or in absolute terms (number of copies of a given mRNA in cells) the expression of only one or a few genes, as described in Transcriptomics- data generation.
The transcriptome analysis, as a whole, seeks expression profiles, for example to quantify the expression of many or all of the transcripts, the transcriptome in fact.
Atypical example of a tool for transcriptome analysis is the microarray, which allows to compare the expression of an entire genome in different conditions of cell growth, as described in Gene set enrichment analysis: a knowledge-based approach for interpreting genome-wide expression profiles.
The transcriptome is the sum of the given time transcribed in a cell, for example, from DNA into RNA genes rewritten, for example the sum of all produced in a cell, RNA molecules. The concept is similar to the proteome, the totality of the given time present in the cell proteins. But since not every present after the transcription of RNA such as rRNA can be translated into a protein (translated), and can still be processed mRNAs, which are proteome and transcriptome of a cell, which is not identical. For the analysis of the transcriptome there are usually resorted to the DNA chip technology. Another method in which the activity of unknown genes can be observed is the so-called serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). As a fact, the term transcriptomics refers to the study of mRNA expression of a cell, as stated in Transcriptomics. The term is roughly equivalent to the term proteomics. Some experts claim that transcriptomics has led to the identification of numerous markers for human diseases, although there has not been provided proof and the exact data that could state for sure about the identification of numerous markers for human diseases. All in all, there has to be made further research considering the transcriptomics and the problems it can help to solve. With the help of the newest and the most modern technologies it will be possible to broaden the sphere of research, to discover more possibilities of the transcriptomics and to achieve the goals.